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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis in the UK.


It used to be considered ‘wear and tear’ of  the bone/cartilage of synovial joints but is now recognised as a metabolically active process involving the whole joint: cartilage, bone, capsule, muscle and lining of the joint).

There are factors that increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis;

  • Previous joint injury, a major joint injury or surgery may lead to osteoarthritis in later life.
  • Other conditions such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Age, osteoarthritis usually begins to develop from late 40’s. This may be due to changes associated with aging such as reduced activity, weight-gain, muscle weakness and the body being less able to heal itself fully.
  • Gender - osteoarthritis is more common in women
  • Joint abnormalities, being born or acquiring joint abnormalities can lead to earlier osteoarthritis (e.g. instability, poor muscle function)
  • Obesity
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Ethnic background. OA is more common in black and Asian population.
  • Certain occupations (e.g. farming)

Symptoms and Signs

  • Typical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint stiffness and pain.
  • Some people also experience tenderness and/or swelling around the joint and a cracking or popping sounds.
  • Symptoms vary from person to person. Some people experience very little pain while others experience severe pain which limits their daily activities.
  • Any joint can be affected by the most common joints are hips, knees, small joints of the hands and spine.


Most common investigation for OA is X-ray.

Other investigations may include bloods tests including inflammatory markers to exclude inflammatory arthritis (such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis). 

What complementary and alternative therapies shall I try?

Osteopathy. A manual therapy such as osteopathy has been shown to alleviate the severity of pain, decrease symptoms such as crunching and grinding of the knee and increase mobility compared to a sham treatment (Pollard et al 2008). It has also been proven that manual therapy improves balance and functional strength more than just exercise alone (Ko et al 2009). The combined approach (strength training, exercise and manual therapy). Exercise plus manual therapy improves pain and function more than just exercise alone (Mariette et al 2011).  Osteopaths will be able to advise best exercises for your condition. Research shows strength training and exercise significantly improve pain and physical function in knee osteoarthritis (Mariette et al 2011).

Acupuncture has been shown to improve function and pain relief in osteoarthritis when used alongside exercise (Manheimer et al 2006).

Nutritional therapy. There is high quality evidence to say that exercise and weight reduction reduces pain and improved physical function in osteoarthritic knees (Jamtvedt 2008).

Homeopathy. There is some evidence showing that homeopathic remedies may be useful in management of osteoarthritis (Long and Ernst, 2001)

Integrated medicine. The doctors combine conventional treatments with a combination of herbal and homeopathic remedies, nutritional supplements, diet and psychological techniques depending on the individual circumstances.

Reiki and reflexology aim to stimulate and restore the natural balance of the body and place it in a position to restore or boost it’s own natural healing system.

Hypnotherapy can reduce stress by calming the body down and places the body and mind into a state of deep relaxation and stimulate repair mechanisms.

What practitioners can I see about this condition?

Osteopaths Viv Keohane, Mark Stockwell

Acupuncturist and Traditional Chinese Medicine doctor Dr Ruolin Sun

Integrated doctor Doctors Dr Katya Mishanina, Dr Particia Ridsdale, Dr David Owen

Medical homeopath Dr Tim Foster

Nutritionist Ruth Taylor

Reflexologist Jane Pearce

Hypnotherapist Dr Ruth Dyson

Follow up

After you initial consultation, we recommend that you have regular check-ups to monitor your symptoms and response to interventions. The practitioner will advise on appropriate follow up arrangements for your individual situation.   

Multidisciplinary approach

Depending on your needs, your care may be shared with other practitioners at the natural practice or elsewhere. Whenever you permit us, we will write to your GP to ensure they are aware of our recommendations and follow up arrangements.

Further information:

Arthritis research UK


  • Simon C. et al Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Jones D.S.  et al The textbook of functional medicine 3rd ed, Gig Harbour, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2010.
  • Anthony, H et al Environmental Medicine in clinical practice, Southampton: BSAENM publications, 1997.
  • Long L, Ernst E. Homeopathic remedies for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review. British Homoeopathic Journal 2001; 90(1): 37-43